<Body><script type="text/javascript"> function setAttributeOnload(object, attribute, val) { if(window.addEventListener) { window.addEventListener('load', function(){ object[attribute] = val; }, false); } else { window.attachEvent('onload', function(){ object[attribute] = val; }); } } </script> <div id="navbar-iframe-container"></div> <script type="text/javascript" src="https://apis.google.com/js/plusone.js"></script> <script type="text/javascript"> gapi.load("gapi.iframes:gapi.iframes.style.bubble", function() { if (gapi.iframes && gapi.iframes.getContext) { gapi.iframes.getContext().openChild({ url: 'https://www.blogger.com/navbar.g?targetBlogID\x3d26111330\x26blogName\x3ddagoberto+right\x26publishMode\x3dPUBLISH_MODE_BLOGSPOT\x26navbarType\x3dBLUE\x26layoutType\x3dCLASSIC\x26searchRoot\x3dhttp://dagobertomlaa.blogspot.com/search\x26blogLocale\x3den_US\x26v\x3d2\x26homepageUrl\x3dhttp://dagobertomlaa.blogspot.com/\x26vt\x3d-4294157245348350909', where: document.getElementById("navbar-iframe-container"), id: "navbar-iframe" }); } }); </script>

Friday, April 14, 2006

Mount Warning



Mount Warning is a mountain in New South Wales, Australia, near the border with Queensland. It is known as Wollumbin in the local native tongue, and is the highest mountain on Australias east coast. Due to its height and close proximity to Australias easternmost point, Cape Byron, it is known as the place that first sees the sun rise in the country. The name Mount Warning was given to acrobat reader downloadthe mountain in 1770 by Captain James Cook, free adobe acrobatas its distinct profile served as a warning to the dangerous Julian Rocks two kilometers offshore. Mount Warning is the central remnant of an ancient volcano formerly twice acrobat reader free downloadthe height adobe acrobat reader free downloadof acrobat readerthe current mountain, which erupted terrelsjxiover 22 million years ago. adobe acrobat reader free downloadThe erosion caldera formed since this eruption is faruqlg62easily visible around the summit.

Peter I of Russia



Peter I (Pyotr Alexeevich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S. Notes ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. Known as Peter the Great ( I Pyotr Velikii), he was at first a joint ruler with his weak and sickly half-brother, Ivan V of Russia, who died in 1696. Peter then ruled alone until 1724, whenceforth he ruled jointly with his wife, Catherine I of Russia. Peter carried out a policy of Westernization and expansion that transformed Russia into a major European power. He abandoned Tsar as his primary title in 1721 and replaced it with Emperor. Peter was extraordinarily tall at six foot seven inches (2 meters) and a powerful man, although his gangly legs and arms are said to have limited his handsomeness.

Early life

Peter, the son of Aleksey I of Russia and his second wife, Nataliya Kyrillovna Naryshkina, was born in Moscow. Alexei I had previously married Maria Miloslavskaya, having five sons and eight daughters by her, although only two of the sons — Feodor III of Russia and Ivan — were alive when Peter was born. Aleksey I went on to have two further daughters by Nataliya Naryshkina before dying in 1674, to be succeeded by his eldest surviving son, who became Feodor III. Feodor IIIs uneventful reign ended within six years, as Feodor did not leave any children, a dispute over the succession between the Naryshkina and Miloslavskaya families broke out. Properly, Ivan was next in the line of succession, but he was an invalid and of infirm mind. Consequently, the Boyar (a council of Russian nobles) chose the ten-year old Peter to become Tsar, his mother becoming regent. But one of Alekseys daughters by his first marriage, Sophia Alekseyevna, led a rebellion of the Streltsy (Russias élite military corps). In the subsequent conflict, many of Peters relatives and friends were murdered — Peter even witnessed the butchery of one of his uncles by a mob. The memory of this violence may have caused trauma during Peters later years. Sophia insisted that Peter and Ivan be proclaimed joint Tsars, with Ivan being acclaimed as the senior of the two. Sophia acted as Regent during the minority of the two Sovereigns and exercised all power. For seven years, she ruled as an autocrat. Peter, meanwhile, was not particularly concerned that others ruled in his own name. He engaged in such pastimes as ship-building and sailing. The ships he built were used during mock battles. Peters mother sought to force him to adopt a less unconventional approach and arranged his marriage to Eudoxia Lopukhina in 1689. The marriage was an utter failure, and ten years later Peter forced her to become a nun and thus freed himself from the marriage. By the summer of 1689, Peter had planned to take power from his half-sister Sophia, whose position had been weakened by the unsuccessful Crimean campaigns. When she learnt of his designs, Sophia began to conspire with the leaders of the streltsy. Unfortunately for Sophia, a rival faction of the streltsy had already been plotting against her. She was therefore overthrown, with Peter I and Ivan V continuing to act as co-Tsars. Still, Peter could not acquire actual control over Russian affairs. Power was instead exercised by his mother, Nataliya Naryshkina. It was only when Nataliya died in 1694 that Peter became truly independent. Formally, Ivan V remained a co-ruler with Peter, although he was still ineffective. Peter became the sole ruler when Ivan died in 1696.

Early reign

Early in his reign, Peter implemented sweeping reforms aimed at modernising Russia. Heavily influenced by his western advisors, Peter reorganized the Russian army along European lines and dreamt of making Russia a maritime power (sociology). He faced much opposition to these policies at home, but brutally suppressed any and all rebellions against his authority. To improve his nations position on the seas, Peter sought to gain control of more maritime outlets. His only outlet at the time was the White Sea. The Baltic Sea was acrobat readerat the time controlled by Sweden. Peter instead attempted to acquire control of the Caspian Sea, but to do so he would have to expel the Tatars from the surrounding areas. He was forced to wage war against the Crimean Khan and against the Khans overlord, the Ottoman Empire. Peters primary objective became the capture of the Ottoman fortress of Azov, near the Don River, Russia. In the summer of 1695, Peter organized the Azov campaigns in order to take the fortress, but his attempts ended in failure. Peter returned to Moscow in November of that year, and promptly began building a large navy. He launched about thirty ships against the Ottomans in 1696, capturing Azov in July of that year. Peter knew that Russia could not face the mighty Ottoman Empire alone. In 1697, he traveled to Europe along with a large delegation of advisors — the Grand Embassy — to seek the aid of the European monarchs. Peters hopes were dashed, France was a traditional ally of the Ottoman Sultan, and Austria was eager to maintain peace in the east whilst conducting its own wars in the west. Peter, furthermore, had chosen the most inopportune moment, the Europeans at the time were more concerned about who would succeed the childless Spanish King Charles II of Spain than about fighting the Ottoman Sultan. The Grand Embassy, although failing to complete the mission of creating an anti-Ottoman alliance, still continued to travel across Europe. In adobe acrobat 70visiting England, the Holy Roman Empire and France, Peter learnt much about Western culture. He studied shipbuilding in Deptford, London and Amsterdam, and artillery in Kaliningrad. His visit was cut short in 1698, when he was forced to rush home by a rebellion of the streltsy. The rebellion was, however, easily crushed before Peter returned, of the Tsars troops, only one was killed. Peter nevertheless acted ruthlessly towards the mutineers. Over 1200 of them were tortured and executed, with Peter acting as one of the executioners. The streltsy were disbanded, and the individual they sought to put on the Throne — Peters half-sister Sophia — was forced to become a nun. Also, upon his return from his European tour, Peter sought to end his unhappy marriage. He divorced the Tsaritsa, Eudoxia Lopukhina, whom he had deserted long earlier. The Tsaritsa had borne Peter three children, although only one — the Tsarevich Alexius Petrovich — had survived past his childhood. Peters visits to the West impressed upon him the notion that European customs were in several respects superior to Russian traditions. He commanded all of his courtiers and officials to cut off their long beards and wear European clothing. Boyars who sought to retain their beards were required to pay an annual tax of one hundred rubles. In 1699, Peter also disbanded the traditional Russian calendar, in which the year began on 1 September, in favor of the Julian calendar, in which the year began on 1 January. Traditionally, the years were reckoned from the purported creation, but after Peters reforms, they were to be counted from the Anno Domini.

Great Northern War

Peter made peace with the Ottoman Empire and turned his attention to Russian maritime supremacy. He sought to acquire control of the Baltic Sea, which had been taken by Sweden a half-century earlier. Peter declared war on Sweden, which was at the time led by the sixteen-year old King Charles XII of Sweden. Sweden was also opposed by Denmark, Norway, Saxony and Poland. Russia turned out to be ill-prepared to fight the well-trained Swedes, and their first attempt at seizing the Baltic coast ended in disaster at the Battle of Narva in 1700. Russia could not meaningfully participate for years, and Charles meanwhile concentrated on Poland and Saxony. Peter improved his own army, conquering modern Estonia. Confident he could beat Peter at his leisure, Charles ignored these campaigns, and continued to wage war primarily in Poland and Saxony. As the Poles and Swedes fought each other, Peter founded the great city of Saint Petersburg (named for Saint Peter) in Ingria (which he had captured from Sweden) in 1703. He forbade the building of stone edifices outside Saint Petersburg — which he wanted to become Russias capital — so that all the stonemasons could participate in the construction of the new city. He also took Martha Skavronskaya as a mistress. Martha converted to Orthodox Christianity and took the name Catherine, allegedly marrying Peter in secret in 1707. Following several defeats, the Polish King August II of Poland abdicated in 1706. Charles XII turned his attention to Russia, invading it in 1708. After crossing into Russia, Charles defeated Peter at Golovchin in July. In the Battle of Lesnaya, however, Charles suffered his first ever loss after Peter crushed a group of Swedish reinforcements marching from Riga. Deprived of this aid, Charles was forced to abandon his proposed march on Moscow. Charles refused to retreat to Poland or back to Sweden, instead invading Ukraine. Skillfully, Peter withdrew southward, destroying any Russian property that could assist the Swedes along the way. Thus, the Swedes became incapable of capturing Russian supplies, and suffered in the bitterly cold winter of 1708–1709. In the summer of 1709, they nevertheless resumed their efforts to capture Ukraine. Charles then found Peter much more aggressive, and the battle both yearned for took place at Poltava on 27 June. Peter reaped the benefits of years of work on improvements to the Russian army, inflicting almost ten thousand casualties and afterwards capturing what remained of the Swedish army. In Poland, August II was restored as King. Charles fled to the then-neutral Ottoman Empire, where he tried to convince the Sultan, Ahmed III, to help him in a renewed campaign. Peter foolishly attacked the Ottomans in 1711. Normally, the Boyar Duma would have exercised power during his absence. Peter, however, mistrusted the Boyars, he abolished the Duma and created a Senate of ten members. Peters campaign in the Ottoman Empire was disastrous, in the ensuing peace treaty, Peter was forced to return the Black Sea ports he had seized in 1697. In return, the Sultan expelled Charles XII from his territory. Peters northern armies took the Swedish province of Swedish Livonia (the northern half of modern Latvia, and the southern half of modern Estonia), driving the Swedes back into Swedish Finland. Most of Finland was occupied by the Russians in 1714. The Tsars navy was so powerful that the Russians could penetrate Sweden. Peter also obtained the assistance of Hanover (state) and the Kingdom of Prussia. Still, Charles refused to yield, and not until his death in battle in 1718 did peace become feasible. Sweden made peace with all willard2267powers but Russia by 1720. In 1721, the Treaty of Nystad ended what became known as the Great Northern War. Russia acquired Ingria, Russian Estonia, Livonia and a substantial portion of Karelia. In turn, Russia paid two million Riksdaler and surrendered most of Finland. The Tsar was, however, permitted to retain some Finnish lands close to Saint Petersburg, which he had made his capital in 1712.

Later years

Peters last years were marked by further reforms in Russia. In 1721, soon after peace was made with Sweden, he was acclaimed Emperor of All Russia. (Some proposed that he take the title Emperor of the East, but he refused.) His imperial title was recognized by Augustus II of Poland, Frederick William I of Prussia and Frederick I of Sweden, but not by the other European monarchs. In the minds of many, the word Emperor connoted superiority or pre-eminence over mere Kings. Several rulers feared that Peter would claim authority over them, just as the Holy Roman Emperor had once claimed suzerainty over all Christian nations. Peter also reformed the government of the Orthodox Church. The traditional leader of the Church was the List of Metropolitans and Patriarchs of Moscow. In 1700, when the office fell vacant, Peter had refused to name a replacement, allowing the Patriarchs Coadjutor (or deputy) to discharge the duties of the office. In 1721, he erected the Holy Synod, a council of ten clergymen, to take the place of the Patriarch and Coadjutor. In 1722, Peter created a new order of precedence, known as the Table of Ranks. Formerly, precedence had been determined by birth. In order to deprive the Boyars of their high positions, Peter directed that precedence should be determined by merit and service to the Emperor. The Table of Ranks continued to remain in effect until the Russian monarchy was overthrown in 1917. Peter also introduced new taxes to fund improvements in Saint Petersburg. He abolished the land tax and household tax, and replaced them with a capitation. The taxes on land on households were payable only by individuals who owned property or maintained families, the new head taxes, however, were payable by serfs and paupers. In 1724, Peter had his second wife, Catherine, crowned as Empress, although he continued to remain Russias actual ruler. All of Peters male children had died — the eldest son, Aleksey, had been tortured and killed on Peters orders in 1718 because he had disobeyed his father and opposed official policies. Alekseys mother Eudoxia had also been punished, she was dragged from her home and tried on false charges of adultery. Alekseys friends had also been tortured. In 1725, construction of Peterhof, a palace near St Petersburg, was completed. Peterhof (Dutch language for Peters Court) was a grand residence, becoming known as the Russian Palace of Versailles (after the great French Palace of Versailles). Peters failures were few, although they were significant. He failed to obtain a warm water port on the Black Sea. Also, he was unsuccessful at reforming all of Russia. Because there were so many riots in St. Petersburg toward the end of his rule, the Russian capital was moved back to Moscow.

Death

A law of 1722 had allowed Peter to choose his own successor, but he failed to take advantage of it before he died from an illness in 1725. The lack of clear succession rules led to many succession conflicts in the subsequent era of palace revolutions. Peter was succeeded by his wife Catherine, who had the aid of the imperial guards. Upon her death in 1727, the Empress Catherine was succeeded by Alekseys son, Peter II of Russia, bringing the direct male line of Romanov monarchs to an end. Thereafter, inheritance of the Throne was generally chaotic — the next two monarchs were descendants of Peter Is half brother Ivan V, but the Throne was restored to Peters own descendants through a coup détat in 1741. No child would simply and directly succeed his or her parent until Paul of Russia followed Catherine II of Russia in 1796, over seventy years after Peter had died.

Style

Peter I was originally styled, Peter, Tsar and Grand Duke, Autocrat of All Great, Small and White Russias, of Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod, Tsar of Kazan, Tsar of Astrakhan, Tsar of Siberia, Lord of Pskov and Grand Duke of Smolensk, Tver, Ugra, Perm, Viatka and Bulgaria, Lord and Grand Duke of Novgorod of the Lower Lands, of Chernigov, Riazan, Rostov, Yaroslavl, Belozero, Udor, Obdoria and Conda, Ruler of All The Northern Lands, Lord of the Iverian Lands of the Cartalinian and Georgian Tsars, and of the Carbardinian Lands of Cherkassian and Gorsian Princes, and of other Lands Hereditary Lord and Dominator. The title changed in 1721, with Tsar and Grand Duke, Autocrat of All Great, Small and White Russias being replaced by Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia. Furthermore, Grand Duke of Smolensk, Tver Ugra, Perm, Viatka and Bulgaria was amended to Grand Duke of Smolensk, Duke of Estonia, Livonia, Karelia, Tver Ugra, Perm, Viatka and Bulgaria. He also began to use an ordinal (the First) after his name, despite the earlier practice of not using any ordinals at all in the monarchs formal style.

Legitimate issue

Yevdokia Lopukhina
Alexius Petrovich 18 February 1690 26 June 1718 married 1711, Princess Charlotte of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, had issue
HIH Alexander Petrovich, Grand Duke of Russia 13 October 1691 14 May 1692
HIH Pavel Petrovich, Grand Duke of Russia 1693 1693
Ekaterina I
Anna Petrovna 7 February 1708 15 May 1728 married 1725, Karl Friedrich of Holstein-Gottorp, had issue
Elizabeth of Russia 29 December 1709 5 January 1762 married idelisa14he1742, Alexei Grigorievich, Count Razumovsky, no issue
HIH Natalia Petrovna, Grand Duchess of Russia 20 March 1713 27 May 1715
HIH Margarita Petrovna, Grand Duchess of Russia 19 September 1714 7 June 1715
HIH Peter Petrovich, Grand Duke of Russia 15 November 1715 19 April 1719
HIH Pavel Petrovich, Grand Duke of Russia 13 January 1717 14 January 1717
HIH Natalia Petrovna, Grand Duchess of Russia 31 August 1718 15 March 1725

Heritage in the Twentieth acrobat distillerCentury

In the twentieth century, the adobe acrobat 70Communist Party of the Soviet Union took it as its point of honor to surpass in every regard anything that any Tsar had ever done. They looked to Peter the Great as a model to surpass, for they wanted to over-complete the modernization of Russia. His project for a canal to link the Baltic Sea and the White Seas for both commercial and naval use was carried out under Stalin, for example, though in a haphazard manner with great loss of life and resulting in a militarily useless canal. The Russian communists consider the modern era as beginning with Peters reign, and being surpassed by the contemporary era with the October revolution. And he is revered even more by the current Russian nationalists.

Notes

1. Dates indicated by the letters O.S. are Julian calendar. All other dates in this article are free adobe acrobat readerGregorian calendar. start box succession box title: List of Russian rulers before Feodor III of Russia after — years 1682–1721
with Ivan V of Russia 1682–1696 succession box two to one before1 — before2 Frederick I of Sweden title1 List of Russian rulers title2 List of adobe acrobatEstonian rulers years1 1721–1725 after Catherine I of Russia years2 1721–1725 end box

Konstantin Päts



Konstantin Päts (February 23 1874 in Tahkuranna - January 18 1956 in Burashevo, Oblast of Kalinin (current Tver), Russia) was an Estonian president and dictator. Prime Minister of the Provisional Government
24.02.1918 - 09.05.1919 Head of State (Elder of State)
25.01.1921 - 21.11.1922
02.08.1923 - 26.03.1924
12.02.1931 - 19.02.1932
21.10.1933 - 24.01.1934 Prime Minister in the Duties of the Head of State
24.01.1934 - 03.09.1937 Protector of State
03.09.1937 - 24.04.1938 President
24.04.1938 - 17.06.1940 1917-1918 Chairman of the Estonian Province Assembly (Eesti Maanõukogu). 1918, Chairman of the Estonian Rescue Committee. 1918, imprisoned by the German occupation powers, from July to November 1918 in a prison camp in Poland. In 1918, while the Prime Minister of the Provisional Government of Estonia, as well as the free acrobat readerMinister of Internal Affairs, 1918 the Minister of War. 1922-1923 Chairman of I Riigikogu. 1917-1919 member of the Estonian Province Assembly, 1919-1920 member of the Constituent Assembly (Asutav Kogu), 1920-1934/37 member of the I-V Riigikogu. Finished the Pärnu State High School, studied at the Law Department of the Tartu University in 1894-1898, Candidate of Law. 1898-1899 compulsory army service in Pskov, 1900-1901 solicitor by barrister Jaan Poska in Tallinn. 1901.1905 editor of the “Teataja” (The Gazette) newspaper. 1904-1905 Member of Tallinn City Council, Assistant Mayor in 1905. Participated in the Russian Revolution of 1905, escaped abroad, was sentenced to death by default by the Russian court-martial. 1905-1906 exile in Switzerland, 1906-1909 in Finland. In 1909 in St. Petersburg gave himself up to the court authorities and was sentenced to 9 months of imprisonment, served the punishment in the “Kresty” prison of St. Petersburg. 1908-1910 editor of the “St. Petersburg Gazette” (“Peterburi Teataja”, an Estonian newspaper in St. Petersburg). 1911-1916 editor of the “Tallinna Teataja” (The Tallinn Gazette), 1916-1917 army service in Tallinn. In 1917, Chairman of the Supreme Committee of the Estonian Military in Tallinn. 1919-1933 Chairman of the “Estonian Lloyd” insurance company (intermittently, during his times as a member of the Government of the Republic, 1925. 1929 Chairman of the Board of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, from 1935 Honorary Councillor, 1925-1936 Chairman of the Estonian-Finnish-Hungarian Association, from 1936 Honorary Chairman, 1927-1937 Chairman of the Fenno-Ugria acrobat downloadFoundation, Chairman of the Board of the Harju Bank, Chairman of the Tallinn Exchange Committee. Owner of the Kloostrimetsa farmstead in the vicinity of Tallinn. 1928 Honorary adobe acrobat readerDoctor of Law of Tartu University, in 1938 Honorary Doctor of Sciences of the Tallinn Technical University and download adobe acrobat readerthe University of Andhra (India). 1938 Honorary Member of the Estonian Naturalists Society, Honorary Member of the Learned Estonian Society, Honorary Member of the Estonian Institute of Natural faruqlg62Resources, 1939 Honorary Member of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Honorary Alumnus of the student fraternity “Fraternitas Estica”. Honorary citizen of Tallinn, Narva, Pärnu and Tartu and the rural municipality of Tahkuranna. Cross of Freedom I/1 and III/1. Publications adobe acrobat reader free downloadin the field of state law and politics. 30.07.1940 imprisoned by the NKVD (Peoples Commissariat of Internal Affairs, here the Soviet State willard2267Secret Police) and deported to Russia, lived as deportee, then in prison, 1954-56 in free acrobat readerthe mental hospital of Kalinin, where also died. On 21.10.1990 was reburied to the Metsakalmistu in Tallinn.

Damascus steel



Damascus steel is a type of steel alloy that is both strong and malleable, a material that is perfect for the building of swords. The term refers to the metal used by the artisans and swordsmiths of Damascus, Syria. The process for making Damascus steel, was used between about 900 and 1600 in the Middle East, and then disappeared for reasons that are not entirely understood. It is said that when it was first encountered by Europeans during the Crusades it garnered an almost mythical reputation — a Damascus steel blade was said to be able to cut a piece of silk in half as it fell to the ground, as well as being able to chop through normal blades, or even Rock (geology), without losing its sharp edge. Recent metallurgy experiments, based on microscopic studies of preserved Damascus steel blades, have claimed to reproduce a very similar alloy via possible reconstructions of the (still unknown) historical process.

Development of Damascus steel

When forming a batch of steel, impurities are added to control the properties of the resulting alloy. In general, notably during the era of Damascus steel, one could produce an alloy that was strong and brittle at one extreme by adding up to 2% carbon, or soft and malleable at the other, with about 0.5% carbon. The problem for a swordsmith is that the best steel should be both strong and malleable — strong to hold an edge once sharpened, but malleable so it would not break when hitting other metal in combat. This was not possible with normal processes. Metalsmiths in India as early as 300 BC (although more likely 200) developed a new technique known as wootz steel that produced a high-carbon steel of unusually high purity. Glass was added to a mixture of iron acrobat readerand charcoal and then heated. The technique propagated very slowly though the world, reaching modern-day Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan around 900, and then the Middle East around 1000. This process was acrobat distillerfurther refined, either using locally produced steels, or by re-working wootz purchased from India. The exact process remains unknown, but allowed carbides to precipitate out as micro particles arranged in sheets or bands within the body of a blade. The carbides are far harder than the steel, allowing the swordsmith to make an edge centered on one of the carbide bands and thus very strong, while the sword as a whole remained flexible as in normal steels. The banded carbide precipitates appear adobe acrobat 70in the blade as a beautiful swirling patterning, apparently the origin of the term damask.

Loss of the technique

For reasons that are not entirely clear, the process was then lost to the Middle-Eastern metalsmiths around 1600. The original process of making Damascus steel was lost, and has been eagerly sought by many since that time. The Russia bulat steel has many similar properties, at least in nature if not in process. Recently various groups have claimed to have recreated the process, though even they admit they cannot be certain how it was originally created. Verhoeven et. al (1998) believe that the key is controlled thermal cycling (10-20 heating/cooling repetitions between room temperature and about 100C below the austenitizing temperature) after the initial forging, a somewhat different technique was proposed by Wadsworth and Sherby (1980, also 2001). For some time, it was believed that Damascus steel was made in a similar fashion to what is known as pattern welding, a sword making technique that was widely used in Europe and Japan. Pattern welding is a mechanical process that lays up strips of material which are then pounded together, or folded, as in Japanese practice. If the blade is then etched in acid the layering below the surface is revealed, the patterns being similar to that of Damascus steel. For some time this similarity was used to dismiss Damascus as yet another pattern-welded steel, but modern metallurgy demonstrated this to be wrong. It has also long been argued that the raw material for Damascus steel swords was imported from India, because India was the only known center of crucible-fired steels like wootz steel. However this too proved wrong when the furnaces in Turkmenistan were discovered, demonstrating at least that the technique was moving out from India. There appears to be no reason to suspect that similar metal factories were not built in Damascus, although if this were the case their later disappearance requires explanation. However, if Alfred Pendrays work is correct, several key impurities that appear to give damascus steel its properties point to particular ores available in India. Another common myth is that Crusaders introduced the term to Europe after meeting it in combat. However several historical studies have demonstrated that the term did not appear in English language until the 16th century. Even the name itself remains somewhat controversial. Although it would seem obvious that it refers to swords built in Damascus, there are several equally likely sources. One is the Arabic language word damas for water, referring to the surface pattern that looks like turbulent water. Another potential source is the swordsmith himself, the author acrobat reader downloadal-Beruni refers to swords made by a man he names Damasqui. Finally another author, al-Kindi, refers to swords made in Damascus as Damascene. So, even after 1000 years, Damascus steel remains something of a mystery.

Types of Damascus

The original Damascus was a steel type now called wootz. Until the techniques were rediscovered in the 1980s by Alfred Pendray, it was widely believed that nobody knew exactly how this was made, though a very similar material was made by the Stanford team of Oleg Sherby and Jeff Wadsworth. Pendrays recreation of the traditional process involves putting iron and several other ingredients in a clay crucible and heating them until they meld together. Other recent free acrobat readermetallurgical work, both in Russia and the United States, may have created new pathways to this marvelous material. Pattern welded steel is commonly known today as Damascus, although this is historically incorrect. Pattern weld Damascus is made out of several types of steel and iron slices, which are then welded together to form a billet. The patterns vary depending on what the smith does to the billet. The billet is drawn out and folded until the desired number of layers are formed. Japanese samurai swords were made with this method. Also kris or keris swords of Indonesia were made of pattern weld. Another material similar to Pattern weld is mokume-gane. Mokume is made of the softer metals, like gold, silver, and copper. It is made in much the same way as pattern weld Damascus, and is used for rings, tsubas (the guard on a samurai sword), and knife bolsters. The name mokume-gane means wood eye, referring to the pattern of the metals, which looks like wood grain. It was first made by the Japanese. Some ancient shotgun barrels pernelid07(usually on Double-barreled-shotgun guns) were formed from forged wires. This leaves a visible wire pattern in the barrel and such are faruqlg62referred to as Damascus Barrels.

References

Eric M. Taleff, Bruce L. Bramfitt, Chol K. Syn, Donald R. Lesuer, Jeffrey Wadsworth, and Oleg D. Sherby, adobe acrobatProcessing, structure, and properties of a rolled ultrahigh-carbon steel plate exhibiting a damask pattern, Materials Characterization 46 (1), 11-18 (2001).
J. D. Verhoeven, A review of microsegregation induced banding phenomena in steels, J. Materials Engineering and Performance 9 (3), 286-296 (2000).
J. D. Verhoeven, A. H. Pendray, and W. E. Dauksch, The Key Role of Impurities in Ancient Damascus Steel Blades, JOM 50 (9), 58-64 (1998).
J. Wadsworth and O. D. Sherby, On the Bulat — Damascus steel revisited, Prog. Materials Science 68, 25-35 (1980).

Thomas J. Moore



Thomas J. Moore (May 1, 1883 - February 12, 1955) was born in Fordstown Crossroads, County Meath, Ireland. Along with his brothers Matthew Moore and Owen Moore, he emigrated to United States and all went on to Hollywood, California and to successful careers in motion pictures. Tom Moore appeared in his first motion picture in 1912 and directed the 1915 film The Secret Room. Frequently cast as the romantic lead, he starred in many silent films as well as in some of the first sound films. In 1914, he married silent film star Alice Joyce, with whom he had a daughter named Alice who, in later years, would act in films with her father. While in New York City on New Year’s Eve 1920 Tom Moore met the young French actress Renee Adoree. A whirlwind romance ensued and six weeks after meeting, they were married on February 12, 1921 in his home in Beverly Hills, California. The marriage lasted only a few years and in 1931 Tom Moore married a third time to Eleanor Merry. The Great Depression saw many studios close and much consolidation as the motion industry went through tough times and Tom Moore retired from film in the mid 1930s. Ten years later, he returned to act in download adobe acrobat readerminor supporting roles. Tom Moore died in Santa Monica, California. He has a star on the Hollywood Walk marlyssajbotof acrobat readerFame at 1640 Vine Street. A adobe acrobat readerfew of his adobe acrobatfilms:
Dodging a download adobe acrobat readerMillion - (1918)
Made in Heaven - acrobat distiller(1921)
One Night in avichaiw0l7Rome - (1924)
Manhandled (1924)
The Love Thrill - (1927)
The Wise Wife - (1927)
Ten Laps To Go - (1938)
Behind Green Lights (1946)
Mother Wore Tights (1947)
Road House (1948)

Galileo positioning system



The Galileo positioning system (not to be confused with, or abbreviated to, GPS) is a planned satellite navigation system, intended as a European alternative to the United States Global Positioning System (GPS). Usage of the acronym GPS in this article refers only to the existing United States system.

History

The first stage of the Galileo program was agreed upon officially on May 26, 2003 by the European Union and the European Space Agency. The system is intended primarily for civilian use, unlike the US system, which is run by and primarily for the US military. The US reserves the right to limit the signal strength or accuracy of the GPS systems, or to shut down GPS completely, so that non-military users cannot use it in time of conflict. The precision of the signal available to non-military users was limited before 2000 (a process known as selective availability). The European system will not (in theory) be subject to shutdown for military purposes, will provide a significant improvement to the signal available from GPS, and will, upon completion, be available at its full precision to all users, both civil and military. The European Commission had some difficulty trying to secure funding for the next stage of the Galileo project. European states were wary of investing the necessary funds at a time of economic difficulty, when national budgets were being threatened across Europe. Some states, such as France, strongly supported Galileo because it would demonstrate an end to reliance on United States technologies. Other states felt that diondregmzqit would be better to continue getting the service for free from the US, rather than paying for it themselves. Following the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attack, The United States wrote to the European Union opposing the project, arguing that it would end the ability of the US to shut down GPS in times of military operations. On January 17, 2002 a spokesman for the project sombrely stated that Galileo is almost dead as a result of US pressure. A few months later, however, the situation changed dramatically. Partially in reaction to the pressure exerted by the US, European Union member states decided it was important to have their own independent satellite-based positioning and timing infrastructure. All European Union member states became strongly in favour of the Galileo system in late 2002 and, as a result, the project actually became over-funded, which posed a completely new set of problems for the companies involved. The liwanu1pyqEuropean Union and European Space Agency then agreed in March 2002 to fund the project, pending a review in 2003 (which was finalized on May 26, 2003). The starting cost for the period ending in 2005 is estimated at Euro 1.1 billion. The required satellites - the planned number is 30 - will be launched throughout the period 2006-2008 and the system will be up and running and under civilian control from 2008. The final cost is estimated at EUR 3 bn, including the infrastructure on Earth, which is to be constructed in the years 2006 and 2007. At least two thirds of the cost will be invested by private companies and investors, the remaining costs are divided between the European Space Agency and the European Union. An encrypted higher bandwidth Commercial Service with improved accuracy will be available at an extra cost, while the base Open Service will be freely available to anyone with Galileo compatible receiver. The European Union has agreed to switch to a range of frequencies known as Binary Offset Carrier 1.1 in June 2004, which will allow both European and American forces to block each others signals in the battlefield without disabling the entire system.

International involvement

In September 2003, Peoples Republic of China joined the Galileo project. China will invest EUR 230 million (United States dollar 296 million, Pound Sterling 160 million) in the project over the next few years (see external link, below). In July 2004, Israel signed an agreement with the EU to become a partner in the Galileo project. is speculation that other countries might join the Galileo project, including India, Brazil, Mexico, Chile, Japan, Russia, free adobe acrobat readerUkraine, South Korea, Australia. 44687 implications of Galileo project As well as being an impressive technological achievement and a hugely practical tool, Galileo will be a political statement of European technological independence from the United States. A strong motivator for seeking technological independence is the policy of the United States government to employ only American companies for the building of components for the GPS.

EGNOS

The European geostationary navigation overlay system (EGNOS) is intended to be adobe acrobat free downloada precursor to Galileo. EGNOS is a system of satellites and ground stations designed to increase the accuracy of the current GPS and GLONASS in Europe. Eventually, they will be adobe acrobat 70used for Galileo acrobat distillertoo. Either acrobat reader free downloadthe Eurely alliance or the iNavsat consortium will likely operate Galileo once free acrobat readerit becomes operational.

Horseshoe Curve



Horseshoe Curve is a famous railroad curve in central Pennsylvania in the United States, built by the Pennsylvania Railroad and later used by the Penn Central, Conrail and most recently Norfolk Southern. It is located in Kittanning Gap at the summit of the Allegheny Ridge, approximately 5 miles (8 kilometre) west of Altoona, Pennsylvania. The bend is a tight arc of approximately 220 degrees. It comprises two separate curves, on the north side, the radius measures 637 ft (194 m), tightening to 609 ft (186 m) on the south side. The curve was built in response to the difficulty of constructing a railroad through the summit of the Allegheny Mountains. It was designed by J. Edgar Thomson and opened on February 15, 1854. The curve has been in nearly continuous operation since 1854. Originally comprising two tracks, it was widened to four tracks in 1898–1900. Conrail removed one of the tracks in 1981 and the Curve remains in this three-track configuration. It has long been a popular tourist attraction, visitable adobe acrobat reader free downloadby a funicular railway running to a small park built by the PRR in 1879 at the summit of the ridge. The curves importance to railroad traffic in America was such that a planned Nazi attack during World War II would have blown acrobat reader downloadit up. The curve was designated as a National Historic Landmark in cuuladhylb91966. The curve brigidae608is also an unofficial adobe acrobat downloadinternational meeting place for railfans, foamers, and trainspotters acrobat reader downloadalike. The curve inspired free adobe acrobatthe acrobat reader free downloadname of Altoonas minor league baseball team, the Altoona Curve.